1 of or relating to Antarctica
2 at or near the south pole [syn: south-polar] n : the region around the south pole: Antarctica and surrounding waters [syn: Antarctic Zone, South Frigid Zone]
EtymologyFrom the lower-case antarctic.
Pertaining to Antarctica
<div style="float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 2em; width: 25em; text-align: right; font-size: 0.86em; line-height: normal;"> <div style="border: 1px solid #ccd2d9; background: #f0f6fa; text-align: left; padding: 0.5em 1em; text-align: center;"> Antarctica
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, overlying the South Pole. It is situated in the southern hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.4 million km² (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. Some 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice, which averages at least 1.6 kilometres (1.0 mi) in thickness.
On average, Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents. Since there is little precipitation, except at the coasts, the interior of the continent is technically the largest desert in the world. There are no permanent human residents and there is no evidence of any existing or pre-historic indigenous population. Only cold-adapted plants and animals survive there, including penguins, fur seals, mosses, lichen, and many types of algae.
The name Antarctica is a romanized version of the Greek compound word Αntarktiké (Aνταρκτική), meaning "Opposite of the Arctic". Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Mikhail Lazarev and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen. However, the continent remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation.
The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by twelve countries; to date, forty-five countries have signed the treaty. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists of many nationalities and with different research interests.
HistorySee also: List of Antarctic expeditions
Belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and north Africa—had existed since the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD), who suggested the idea to preserve the symmetry of all known landmasses in the world. Depictions of a large southern landmass were common in maps such as the early 16th century Turkish Piri Reis map. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size.
European maps continued to show this hypothetical land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on January 17, 1773, in December 1773 and again in January 1774. Cook in fact came within about of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773. The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by three individuals. According to various organizations (the National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego, and other sources), ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (an American sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut). Von Bellingshausen saw Antarctica on January 27, 1820, three days before Bransfield sighted land, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. On that day the two-ship expedition led by Von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev reached a point within 32 kilometers (20 mi) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice fields there. The first documented landing on mainland Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis in Western Antarctica on February 7, 1821, although some historians dispute this claim.
In December 1839, as part of the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–42 conducted by the United States Navy (sometimes called the "Ex. Ex.", or "the Wilkes Expedition"), an expedition sailed from Sydney, Australia, into the Antarctic Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands". That part of Antarctica was later named "Wilkes Land", a name it maintains to this day.
In 1841, explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named for him). He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf (also named for him). Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror. Mercator Cooper landed in Eastern Antarctica on January 26, 1853. During an expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by T. W. Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole. Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931. In addition, Shackleton himself and three other members of his expedition made several firsts in December 1908 – February 1909: they were the first humans to traverse the Ross Ice Shelf, the first to traverse the Transantarctic Mountain Range (via the Beardmore Glacier), and the first to set foot on the South Polar Plateau. On December 14, 1911, an expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier. One month later, the ill-fated Scott Expedition reached the pole.
Richard Evelyn Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. He is credited with implementing mechanized land transport on the continent and conducting extensive geological and biological research. However, it was not until October 31, 1956 that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George J. Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there.
GeographyCentered asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely south of the Antarctic Circle, Antarctica is the southernmost continent and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean; alternatively, it may be considered to be surrounded by the southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, or by the southern waters of the World Ocean. It covers more than 14 million km² (5.4 million sq mi), making it the fifth-largest continent, about 1.3 times larger than Europe. The coastline measures 17,968 kilometers (11,160 mi) and is mostly characterized by ice formations, as the following table shows: Antarctica is divided in two by the Transantarctic Mountains close to the neck between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. The portion west of the Weddell Sea and east of the Ross Sea is called Western Antarctica and the remainder Eastern Antarctica, because they roughly correspond to the Western and Eastern Hemispheres relative to the Greenwich meridian.
About 98% of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, a sheet of ice averaging at least 1.6 kilometers (1.0 mi) thick. The continent has about 90% of the world's ice (and thereby about 70% of the world's fresh water). If all of this ice were melted, sea levels would rise about 60 meters (200 ft). In most of the interior of the continent, precipitation is very low, down to per year; in a few "blue ice" areas precipitation is lower than mass loss by sublimation and so the local mass balance is negative. In the dry valleys the same effect occurs over a rock base, leading to a desiccated landscape.
Western Antarctica is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the real, if small, possibility of its collapse. If the sheet were to break down, ocean levels would rise by several meters in a relatively geologically short period of time, perhaps a matter of centuries. Several Antarctic ice streams, which account for about 10% of the ice sheet, flow to one of the many Antarctic ice shelves.
Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica at 4,892 meters (16,050 ft), is located in the Ellsworth Mountains. Although Antarctica is home to many volcanoes, only Mount Erebus is known to be active. Located on Ross Island, Erebus is the southernmost active volcano. There is another famous volcano called Deception Island, which is famous for its giant eruption in 1970. Minor eruptions are frequent and lava flow has been observed in recent years. Other dormant volcanoes may potentially be active. In 2004, an underwater volcano was found in the Antarctic Peninsula by American and Canadian researchers. Recent evidence shows this unnamed volcano may be active.
Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie thousands of meters under the surface of the continental ice sheet. Lake Vostok, discovered beneath Russia's Vostok Station in 1996, is the largest of these subglacial lakes. It is believed that the lake has been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years. There is some evidence, in the form of ice cores drilled to about above the water line, that Vostok's waters may contain microbial life. The sealed, frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. If life is discovered in Lake Vostok, this would strengthen the argument for the possibility of life on Europa. On February 7, 2008, a NASA team embarked on a mission to Lake Untersee, searching for extremophiles in its highly-alkaline waters. If found, these resilient creatures could further bolster the argument for extraterrestrial life in extremely cold, methane-rich environments.
Geological history and paleontologyMore than 170 million years ago, Antarctica was part of the supercontinent Gondwana. Over time, Gondwana gradually broke apart and Antarctica as we know it today was formed around 25 million years ago.
Paleozoic era (540–250 mya)
During the Cambrian period, Gondwana had a mild climate. West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. East Antarctica was at the equator, where sea floor invertebrates and trilobites flourished in the tropical seas. By the start of the Devonian period (416 mya), Gondwana was in more southern latitudes and the climate was cooler, though fossils of land plants are known from this time. Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. Glaciation began at the end of the Devonian period (360 mya), as Gondwana became centered around the South Pole and the climate cooled, though flora remained. During the Permian period, the plant life became dominated by fern-like plants such as Glossopteris, which grew in swamps. Over time these swamps became deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains. Towards the end of the Permian period, continued warming led to a dry, hot climate over much of Gondwana.
Mesozoic era (250–65 mya)As a result of continued warming, the polar ice caps melted and much of Gondwana became a desert. In East Antarctica, the seed fern became established, and large amounts of sandstone and shale were laid down at this time. The Antarctic Peninsula began to form during the Jurassic period (206–146 mya), and islands gradually rose out of the ocean. Ginkgo trees and cycads were plentiful during this period, as were reptiles such as Lystrosaurus. In West Antarctica, coniferous forests dominated through the entire Cretaceous period (146–65 mya), though Southern beech began to take over at the end of this period. Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only two Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus, from the Hanson Formation, and Antarctopelta) have been described to date. It was during this period that Gondwana began to break up.
Gondwana breakup (160–23 mya)The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise by the continental spread changing the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalizing currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences.
Africa separated from Antarctica around 160 mya, followed by the Indian subcontinent, in the early Cretaceous (about 125 mya). About 65 mya, Antarctica (then connected to Australia) still had a tropical to subtropical climate, complete with a marsupial fauna. About 40 mya Australia-New Guinea separated from Antarctica, so that latitudinal current could isolate Antarctica from Australia, and so the first ice began to appear. Around 23 mya, the Drake Passage opened between Antarctica and South America, which resulted in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The ice spread, replacing the forests that then covered the continent. Since about 15 mya, the continent has been mostly covered with ice, with the Antarctic ice cap reaching its present extension around 6 mya.
Geology of present-day AntarcticaThe geological study of Antarctica has been greatly hindered by the fact that nearly all of the continent is permanently covered with a thick layer of ice. However, new techniques such as remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar and satellite imagery have begun to reveal the structures beneath the ice.
Geologically, West Antarctica closely resembles the Andes mountain range of South America. For comparison, this is 11 degrees colder than sublimating dry ice. Antarctica is a frozen desert with little precipitation; the South Pole itself receives less than 10 centimeters (4 in) per year, on average. Temperatures reach a minimum of between and and in the interior in winter and reach a maximum of between and and near the coast in summer. Sunburn is often a health issue as the snow surface reflects almost all of the ultraviolet light falling on it. Eastern Antarctica is colder than its western counterpart because of its higher elevation. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent, leaving the center cold and dry. Despite the lack of precipitation over the central portion of the continent, ice there lasts for extended time periods. Heavy snowfalls are not uncommon on the coastal portion of the continent, where snowfalls of up to 1.22 meters (48 in) in 48 hours have been recorded. The climate of Antarctica does not allow extensive vegetation. A combination of freezing temperatures, poor soil quality, lack of moisture, and lack of sunlight inhibit the flourishing of plants. As a result, plant life is limited to mostly mosses and liverworts. The autotrophic community is made up of mostly protists. The flora of the continent largely consists of lichens, bryophytes, algae, and fungi. Growth generally occurs in the summer, and only for a few weeks at most.
There are more than 200 species of lichens and about 50 species of bryophytes, such as mosses. Seven hundred species of algae exist, most of which are phytoplankton. Multicolored snow algae and diatoms are especially abundant in the coastal regions during the summer. There are two species of flowering plants found in the Antarctic Peninsula: Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass) and Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort).
FaunaLand fauna is nearly completely invertebrate. Invertebrate life includes microscopic mites, lice, nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, krill and springtails. The flightless midge Belgica antarctica, just in size, is the largest purely terrestrial animal in Antarctica. The Snow Petrel is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica. They have been seen at the South Pole.
Due to the extreme cold, the body fluids of tiny mites and midges in Antarctica contain glycerol, an antifreeze liquid that protects them from solidifying when temperatures plummet to as low as .
The passing of the Antarctic Conservation Act in the U.S. brought several restrictions to U.S. activity on the continent. The introduction of alien plants or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as can the extraction of any indigenous species. The overfishing of krill, which plays a large role in the Antarctic ecosystem, led officials to enact regulations on fishing. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in 1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem.
Antarctica has no government and belongs to no country. Various countries claim areas of it, but while some have mutually recognized each other's claims, no other countries recognize such claims. The area between 90° W and 150° W is the only part of Antarctica not claimed by any country as of yet. A coalition of international organisations launched a public pressure campaign to prevent any minerals development in the region, led largely by Greenpeace International which established its own scientific station – World Park Base - in the Ross Sea region and conducted annual expeditions to document environmental impacts from human activities on the continent. In 1988, the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was adopted. The following year, however, Australia and France announced that they would not ratify the convention, rendering it dead for all intents and purposes. Instead, they proposed that a comprehensive regime to protect the Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place. As other countries followed suit, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the ‘Madrid Protocol’) was negotiated and on January 14, 1998 it entered into force. The Madrid Protocol bans all mining activities in Antarctica, designating the continent as a ‘natural reserve devoted to peace and science’.
The Antarctic Treaty prohibits any military activity in Antarctica, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military manoeuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon. Military personnel or equipment are permitted only for scientific research or for other peaceful purposes. The only documented land military manoeuvre was Operation NINETY, undertaken by the Argentine military.
The United States military issues the Antarctica Service Medal to military members or civilians who perform research duty in Antarctica. The medal includes a "wintered over" bar issued to those who remain on the continent for two complete six-month seasons.
Antarctic territoriesThe Argentine, British and Chilean claims all overlap, and have caused friction. Australia has the greatest claim of Antarctic territory.
Countries interested in participating in a future territorial division of Antarctica
This group of countries participating as members of advisory Antarctica Treaty, have an interest in the territorial Antarctic continent but Antarctica provisions of the Treaty itself can not make their claims while the period of validity.
Similarly Russia and the United States, original signatories of the Treaty reserved their right to claim at any time if other countries enforce their own.
Germany also maintained a claim to Antarctica, known as New Swabia, between 1939 and 1945. It was situated from to , overlapping Norway's claim. The claim was abandoned after the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945.
Although coal, hydrocarbons, iron ore, platinum, copper, chromium, nickel, gold and other minerals have been found, they have not been in large enough quantities to exploit. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty also restricts a struggle for resources. In 1998, a compromise agreement was reached to place an indefinite ban on mining, to be reviewed in 2048, further limiting economic development and exploitation. The primary agricultural activity is the capture and offshore trading of fish. Antarctic fisheries in 2000–01 reported landing 112,934 tonnes.
Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since 1957 and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). Not all vessels associated with Antarctic tourism are members of IAATO, but IAATO members account for 95% of the tourist activity. Travel is largely by small or medium ship, focusing on specific scenic locations with accessible concentrations of iconic wildlife. A total of 37,506 tourists visited during the 2006–07 Austral summer with nearly all of them coming from commercial ships. The number is predicted to increase to over 80,000 by 2010. There has been some recent concern over the potential adverse environmental and ecosystem effects caused by the influx of visitors. A call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota have been made by some environmentalists and scientists. The primary response by Antarctic Treaty Parties has been to develop, through their Committee for Environmental Protection and in partnership with IAATO, "site use guidelines" setting landing limits and closed or restricted zones on the more frequently visited sites. Antarctic sight seeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard. Qantas resumed commercial overflights to Antarctica from Australia in the mid-1990s.
TransportTransport on the continent has transformed from explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica on foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport by land and predominantly air and water. Recently, using dogs to pull researchers and sledges have been banned. Because they are aliens to Antarctica, there have been objections. Now being used are new electric buggies, but these have a down side. The dogs were excellent for sensing crevices and thin ice, but these new buggies cannot.
ResearchEach year, scientists from 27 different nations conduct experiments not reproducible in any other place in the world. In the summer more than 4,000 scientists operate research stations; this number decreases to nearly 1,000 in the winter.
Since the 1970s, an important focus of study has been the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica. In 1985, three British Scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer. In 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million km² (10 million sq mi). It was eventually determined that the destruction of the ozone was caused by chlorofluorocarbons emitted by human products. With the ban of CFCs in the Montreal Protocol of 1989, it is believed that the ozone hole will close up over the next fifty years.
Princess Elisabeth Polar Science StationOn September 6, 2007, Belgian-based International Polar Foundation unveiled the Princess Elisabeth station, the world's first zero-emissions polar science station in Antarctica to research climate change. Costing $16.3 million, the prefabricated station, which is part of International Polar Year will be shipped to the South Pole from Belgium by the end of 2008 to monitor the health of the polar regions. Belgian polar explorer Alain Hubert has stated: "This base will be the first of its kind to produce zero emissions, making it a unique model of how energy should be used in the Antarctic." Johan Berte is the leader of the station design team and manager of the project which will conduct research in climatology, glaciology and microbiology.
MeteoritesMeteorites from Antarctica are an important area of study of material formed early in the solar system; most are thought to come from asteroids, but some may have originated on larger planets. The first meteorites were found in 1912. In 1969, a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites. Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. Motion of the ice sheet tends to concentrate the meteorites at blocking locations such as mountain ranges, with wind erosion bringing them to the surface after centuries beneath accumulated snowfall. Compared with meteorites collected in more temperate regions on Earth, the Antarctic meteorites are well-preserved.
This large collection of meteorites allows a better understanding of the abundance of meteorite types in the solar system and how meteorites relate to asteroids and comets. New types of meteorites and rare meteorites have been found. Among these are pieces blasted off the Moon, and probably Mars, by impacts. These specimens, particularly ALH84001 discovered by ANSMET, are at the center of the controversy about possible evidence of microbial life on Mars. Because meteorites in space absorb and record cosmic radiation, the time elapsed since the meteorite hit the Earth can be determined from laboratory studies. The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets.
Volcanic eruptionOn January, 2008, the British Antarctic Survey (Bas) scientists led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported (in the journal Nature Geoscience) that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica ice sheet (based on airborne survey with radar images). The biggest eruption in the last 10,000 years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains, close to Pine Island Glacier.
Effects of global warming
Most of the continent's icy mass has so far proven largely impervious to climate change, being situated on solid rock; its deep interior is actually growing in volume. However, Antarctica's periphery has been noticeably affected by global warming, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and in Pine Island Bay which together are contributing to a rise in sea levels. According to NASA, the most significant Antarctic melting in the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when a mass of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as . Also, although having no obvious effect on the continent's environment, there is a large ozone hole over Antarctica which was detected by scientists in 1973 and continues to grow to this day. The main cause is the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs into the atmosphere, which decompose the ozone into other gasses. For more on the ozone hole, see Ozone depletion.
A bridge made of ice based on the Leonardo da Vinci draft plans for a bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul was built in Antarctica in 2007. This project was a plea to the world to stop the causes of global warming in the hope that the "Leonardo Bridge" in Antarctica remains standing forever. (A similar ice bridge had been constructed in the garden of United Nations on 15 December 2007 for the purpose of demonstrating global warming. That bridge melted fully on Christmas Day 2007.)
On February 28 through March 8, 2008, about 570 square kilometers of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf in Western Antarctica suddenly collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 square kilometers of the ice shelf at risk. The ice is being held back by a "thread" of ice about 6 km wide.
See alsoGeographic regions
- Antarctica ecozone
- Antarctic Peninsula
- Eastern Antarctica
- List of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands
- Extreme points of the Antarctic
- McMurdo Sound
- Ross Sea
- Weddell Sea
- List of Bulgarian toponyms in Antarctica
- List of deserts by area
- List of places with fewer than ten residents (Note: refers to permanent residents)
- List of research stations in Antarctica
- Ancient world maps
- World map
- Antarctica Marathon
- Antarctic Stamps
- Soviet Antarctic Expedition
- Communications in Antarctica
- Life in the Freezer, a BBC natural history television series on life on and around Antarctica
- The Icebird, an Australian supply vessel.
- March of the Penguins, an Academy Award winning documentary film depicting the annual journey Emperor/king Penguins make to their ancestral breeding grounds.
- Trinity Church, Antarctica
External linkssisterlinks Antarctica
- Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, de facto government
- Portals on the World - Antarctica from the Library of Congress
- NASA's LIMA (Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica) (USGS mirror)
- Antarctica travel guide from WikiTravel
- World Environment Day 2007 "Melting Ice" image gallery at The Guardian
- Greenpeace in Antarctica
- BAS Online Palaeontology Collection
- Australian Antarctic Division
- U.S. Antarctic Program Portal
- Antarctica Development Concern
antarctic in Afrikaans: Antarktika
antarctic in Arabic: أنتاركتيكا
antarctic in Aragonese: Antartida
antarctic in Official Aramaic (700-300 BCE): ܐܢܛܐܪܩܛܝܩܐ
antarctic in Franco-Provençal: Antartica
antarctic in Assamese: এন্টাৰ্কটিকা
antarctic in Asturian: Antártida
antarctic in Azerbaijani: Antarktida
antarctic in Bengali: অ্যান্টার্কটিকা
antarctic in Min Nan: Lâm-ke̍k Tāi-lio̍k
antarctic in Bashkir: Антарктика
antarctic in Belarusian: Антарктыда
antarctic in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Антарктыда
antarctic in Central Bicolano: Antartika
antarctic in Tibetan: ལྷོ་མཐའི་གླིང་
antarctic in Bosnian: Antarktik
antarctic in Breton: Antarktika
antarctic in Bulgarian: Антарктида
antarctic in Catalan: Antàrtida
antarctic in Chuvash: Антарктида
antarctic in Czech: Antarktida
antarctic in Welsh: Yr Antarctig
antarctic in Danish: Antarktis
antarctic in German: Antarktis
antarctic in Lower Sorbian: Antarktis
antarctic in Dzongkha: ཨེན་ཊཱག་ཊི་ཀ་
antarctic in Estonian: Antarktika
antarctic in Modern Greek (1453-): Ανταρκτική
antarctic in Spanish: Antártida
antarctic in Esperanto: Antarkto
antarctic in Basque: Antartika
antarctic in Persian: جنوبگان
antarctic in Extremaduran: Antáltia
antarctic in Faroese: Antarktis
antarctic in French: Antarctique
antarctic in Western Frisian: Antarktika
antarctic in Friulian: Antartic
antarctic in Irish: Antartaice
antarctic in Scottish Gaelic: Antargtaga
antarctic in Galician: Antártida
antarctic in Gan Chinese: 南極洲
antarctic in Gujarati: ઍન્ટાર્કટિકા
antarctic in Classical Chinese: 南極洲
antarctic in Hakka Chinese: Nàm-khi̍t-chû
antarctic in Korean: 남극
antarctic in Hindi: अंटार्कटिका
antarctic in Upper Sorbian: Antarktis
antarctic in Croatian: Antarktika
antarctic in Ido: Antarktika
antarctic in Igbo: Antarctica
antarctic in Bishnupriya: এন্টার্কটিকা
antarctic in Indonesian: Antarktika
antarctic in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Antarctica
antarctic in Icelandic: Suðurskautslandið
antarctic in Italian: Antartide
antarctic in Hebrew: אנטארקטיקה
antarctic in Javanese: Antartika
antarctic in Kannada: ಅಂಟಾರ್ಕ್ಟಿಕ
antarctic in Georgian: ანტარქტიდა
antarctic in Kara-Kalpak: Antarktika
antarctic in Swahili (macrolanguage): Bara la Antaktiki
antarctic in Haitian: Antatik (kontinan)
antarctic in Kurdish: Antarktîka
antarctic in Latin: Antarctica
antarctic in Latvian: Antarktīda
antarctic in Lithuanian: Antarktida
antarctic in Ligurian: Antartigo
antarctic in Limburgan: Antarctica
antarctic in Lombard: Antàrtich
antarctic in Hungarian: Antarktisz
antarctic in Malayalam: അന്റാര്ട്ടിക്ക
antarctic in Marathi: अंटार्क्टिका
antarctic in Malay (macrolanguage): Antartika
antarctic in Mongolian: Антарктид
antarctic in Dutch: Antarctica
antarctic in Japanese: 南極大陸
antarctic in Norwegian: Antarktika
antarctic in Norwegian Nynorsk: Antarktis
antarctic in Novial: Antarktika
antarctic in Occitan (post 1500): Antartida
antarctic in Panjabi: Antartica
antarctic in Piemontese: Antàrtide
antarctic in Low German: Antarktis
antarctic in Polish: Antarktyda
antarctic in Portuguese: Antártica
antarctic in Crimean Tatar: Antarktida
antarctic in Kölsch: Süüdpool
antarctic in Romanian: Antarctica
antarctic in Quechua: Antartika
antarctic in Russian: Антарктида
antarctic in Northern Sami: Antárktis
antarctic in Samoan: Anetatika
antarctic in Scots: Antarcticae
antarctic in Sicilian: Antàrtidi
antarctic in Simple English: Antarctica
antarctic in Slovak: Antarktída
antarctic in Slovenian: Antarktika
antarctic in Somali: Antiarktis
antarctic in Serbian: Антарктик
antarctic in Serbo-Croatian: Antarktik
antarctic in Sundanese: Antartika
antarctic in Finnish: Etelämanner
antarctic in Silesian: Antarktyda
antarctic in Swedish: Antarktis
antarctic in Tagalog: Antarctica
antarctic in Tamil: அண்டார்டிக்கா
antarctic in Thai: ทวีปแอนตาร์กติกา
antarctic in Vietnamese: Châu Nam Cực
antarctic in Tajik: Антарктида
antarctic in Tonga (Tonga Islands): ʻAnetātika
antarctic in Turkish: Antarktika
antarctic in Ukrainian: Антарктида
antarctic in Urdu: انٹارکٹیکا
antarctic in Venetian: Antartide
antarctic in Võro: Antarktiga
antarctic in Walloon: Antartike
antarctic in Yiddish: אנטארקטיקע
antarctic in Contenese: 南極洲
antarctic in Zeeuws: Antartica
antarctic in Samogitian: Antarktėda
antarctic in Chinese: 南极洲